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Beartooth Amateur Radio Club

Carbon & Yellowstone County Fire & Emergency Frequencys.
What Is Amateur Radio or so called Ham Radio
Members Page
Club Repeater and Photos
Section News & Information plus FCC Rules
KF7SN`s Home Page.




Grizzly Peek, Beartooth Mtns, Red Lodge, Mt.
Home of 147.000Mhz., Repeater Elevation: 7,390 Ft.


                                    To the Internet Home of BARC.


We invite you to use the WB7RIS 147.000Mhz. (+ 600 Offset) Repeater at any time.


(Notice to all area Amateur's the  147.000Mhz. Repeater is back up on the air and operating normally). 


The Barc Repeater is an open repeater and may be used by all. (Note no CTCSS Tone or {PL Tone} is not needed to operate the repeater).


The repeater is located on Grizzly Peak above Red Lodge Montana at an altitude of 7,390 feet. With Coverage from Red Lodge, Mt. & Billings, Mt. then South into Northern Wyoming, West to Big Timber, Mt. and East to Hardin, Mt. and beyond.


 Be sure to check into the Wednesday evening Technical Net at 8:00 pm.


73 and thanks for visiting our site. From Repeater Trustee K7ZXX Melvin.



                    Thanks Paul N0NBH for your Solar-Terrestrial Data and Propagation forcasts.

Solarcycle #24

Just what do the above numbers mean?

While increasing SFI may be good for HF propagation, it also tends to correspond with high Ap and K indices, which cause D-Layer absorption and noisy band condition.  Solar flux is measured in solar flux units (SFUs).  It is the amount of radio noise or flux emitted at a frequency of 2800 MHz (10.7 cm, hence is it also called the 10.7 cm flux index).

Just what is the Planetary A index? 
It is a measure of how disturbed the Earth's magnetic field is. It varies in
value from 0 to about 400, in linear steps. It is computed from the actual
deviations (non-quiet-time deviations) measured at a number of geomagnetic
observatories (mostly mid-latitude ones) around the world. A value of 30
represents minor storm conditions. Values of 50 represent major storm
conditions and values greater than 100 represent severe storm conditions. It
is derived from the planetary K indices (Kp). The A index is a planetary
daily value, while the Kp index is a planetary measurement derived every 3
hours. The Kp index is a semi-logarithmic index that varies from 0 to 9,
where a 5 represents minor storm conditions, a 6 represents major storm
conditions, and a value of 7 or greater represents severe storm conditions.

The K-index is a code that is related to the maximum fluctuations of horizontal components observed on a magnetometer relative to a quiet day, during a three-hour interval. The conversion table from maximum fluctuation (nT) to K-index, varies from observatory to observatory in such a way that the historical rate of occurrence of certain levels of K are about the same at all observatories. In practice this means that observatories at higher geomagnetic latitude require higher levels of fluctuation for a given K-index.  The maximum positive and negative deviations during the 3-hour period are added together to determine the total maximum fluctuation. These maximum deviations may occur anytime during the 3-hour period.

The higher the K-index, the more unstable propagation becomes, the effect is stronger at high latitudes, but weaker near low latitudes.
When storm level is reached, propagation strongly degrades, possibly fade out at high latitudes.
Classification of K-indices are as follows:

K1=Very quiet
K5=Minor storm
K6=Major storm
K7=Severe storm
K8=Very severe storm
K9=Extremely severe storm

As with the K-index, the higher the A-index, the more unstable propagation becomes.
Classification of A-indices are as follows:

A0 - A7 = quiet
A8 - A15 = unsettled
A16 - A29 = active
A30 - A49 = minor storm
A50 - A99 = major storm
A100 - A400 = severe storm

The solar cycle, or the solar magnetic activity cycle, is a periodic change in the amount of irradiation from the Sun that is experienced on Earth. It has a period of about 11 years, and is one component of solar variation, the other being aperiodic fluctuations. Solar variation causes changes in space weather and to some degree weather and climate on Earth. The cycle is observed by counting the frequency and placement of sunspots visible on the Sun. Powered by a hydromagnetic dynamo process, driven by the inductive action of internal solar flows, the solar cycle:

For the current Auroral Activity click the links below:, and

Frequently Asked Questions about Aurora and Answers

Say Goodbye to Sunspots?
Tuesday, September 14, 2010 - 2:41pm. Scientists studying sunspots for the past 2 decades have concluded that the magnetic field that triggers their formation has been steadily declining. If the current trend continues, by 2016 the sun's face may become spotless and remain that way for decades—a phenomenon that in the 17th century coincided with a prolonged period of cooling on Earth.

Sunspots appear when upwellings of the sun's magnetic field trap ionized plasma—or electrically charged, superheated gas—on the surface. Normally, the gas would release its heat and sink back below the surface, but the magnetic field inhibits this process. From Earth, the relatively cool surface gas looks like a dark blemish on the sun.

Astronomers have been observing and counting sunspots since Galileo began the practice in the early 17th century. From those studies, scientists have long known that the sun goes through an 11-year cycle, in which the number of sunspots spikes during a period called the solar maximum and drops—sometimes to zero—during a time of inactivity called the solar minimum.

Dipole Antenna



Amateur Radio Study Material Resources:
The ARRL Ham Radio License Manual,
The ARRL Ham Radio License Course.
Technician & General Software Value Package.
How to become a Volunteer Examiner and what is a (VE)?
Volunteer Examiners are licensed radio amateurs holding a General Class license or higher who offer their time to administer the FCC licensing tests.  Learn how you can become a VE associated with the ARRL Volunteer Coordinator office (VEC) by reviewing the A.R.R.L  VE Manual.
Relying on the training and experience of ARRL VEs who conduct FCC license exams, ARRL also authorizes our VEs to conduct exam sessions for ARRL's Amateur Radio Emergency Communcations Course.  An additional registration with ARRL's Continuing Education Program is required.  Find more information at EmComm Field Exam Resources.
W5YI-VEC : Amateur Examiners:



Activities and practices:

Amateur Radio operators use various modes of transmission to communicate. Voice transmissions are most common, with some, such as frequency modulation (FM) offering high quality audio, and others, such as single sideband (SSB) offering more reliable communications when signals are marginal and bandwidth is restricted.

Radiotelegraphy using Morse code is an activity dating to the earliest days of radio. Technology has moved past the use of telegraphy in nearly all other communications, and a code test is no longer part of most national licensing exams for amateur radio. Many amateur radio operators continue to make use of the mode, particularly on the shortwave bands and for experimental work such as earth-moon-earth communication, with its inherent signal-to-noise ratio advantages. Morse, using internationally agreed code groups, also allows communications between amateurs who speak different languages. It is also popular with homebrewers as CW-only transmitters are simpler to construct. A similar "legacy" mode popular with home constructors is amplitude modulation (AM), pursued by many vintage amateur radio enthusiasts and aficionados of vacuum tube technology.

For many years, demonstrating a proficiency in Morse code was a requirement to obtain amateur licenses for the high frequency bands (frequencies below 30 MHz), but following changes in international regulations in 2003, countries are no longer required to demand proficiency.[8] As an example, the United States Federal Communications Commission phased out this requirement for all license classes on February 23, 2007.[9][10]

Modern personal computers have encouraged the use of digital modes such as radioteletype (RTTY), which previously required cumbersome mechanical equipment.[11] Hams led the development of packet radio, which has employed protocols such as TCP/IP since the 1970s. Specialized digital modes such as PSK31 allow real-time, low-power communications on the shortwave bands. Echolink using Voice over IP technology has enabled amateurs to communicate through local Internet-connected repeaters and radio nodes[12], while IRLP has allowed the linking of repeaters to provide greater coverage area. Automatic link establishment (ALE) has enabled continuous amateur radio networks to operate on the high frequency bands with global coverage. Other modes, such as FSK441 using software such as WSJT, are used for weak signal modes including meteor scatter and moonbounce communications.

Fast scan amateur television has gained popularity as hobbyists adapt inexpensive consumer video electronics like camcorders and video cards in home computers. Because of the wide bandwidth and stable signals required, amateur television is typically found in the 70 cm (420 MHz–450 MHz) frequency range, though there is also limited use on 33 cm (902 MHz–928 MHz), 23 cm (1240 MHz–1300 MHz) and higher. These requirements also effectively limit the signal range to between 20 and 60 miles (30 km–100 km), however, the use of linked repeater systems can allow transmissions across hundreds of miles.[13]

These repeaters, or automated relay stations, are used on VHF and higher frequencies to increase signal range. Repeaters are usually located on top of a mountain, hill or tall building, and allow operators to communicate over hundreds of square miles using a low power hand-held transceiver. Repeaters can also be linked together by use of other amateur radio bands, landline or the Internet.

Communication satellites called OSCARs (Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio) can be accessed, some using a hand-held transceiver (HT) with a stock "rubber duck" antenna. Hams also use the moon, the aurora borealis, and the ionized trails of meteors as reflectors of radio waves.[14] Hams are also often able to make contact with the International Space Station (ISS),[15] as many astronauts and cosmonauts are licensed as Amateur Radio Operators.[16]

Amateur radio operators use their amateur radio station to make contacts with individual hams as well as participating in round table discussion groups or "rag chew sessions" on the air. Some join in regularly scheduled on-air meetings with other amateur radio operators, called "Nets" (as in "networks") which are moderated by a station referred to as "Net Control".[17] Nets can allow operators to learn procedures for emergencies, be an informal round table or be topical, covering specific interests shared by a group.





                                               *** Webcams ***


Yellowstone Park Web Cam

Billings I-Cam 1 and I-Cam 2


Link to Nexrad Weather Radar

CWSU National TAF METAR Map.
Displays of current weather and forecasts for U.S. City's.

Link to the latest NOAA Weather


Contact us at our email address below.

This site was last updated on July 9, 2014



**BARC Web inception date March 17, 2003**



Legal disclaimer:

Note: The information contained in this site is for general use on Amateur Radio matters of interest only. While we here at BARC have made every attempt to ensure that the information contained in this site has been obtained from reliable sources. We are not responsible for any errors or omissions, or for the results obtained from the use of this information. All information in this Site is provided "as is", with no guarantee of completeness, accuracy, timeliness or of the results obtained from the use of this information, and without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including, but not limited to warranties of particular purpose. Anyone who may use any information from this website and the information is not correct does so at their own peril. Certain links in this Site connect to other Web Sites maintained by third parties over whom Beartooth Amateur Radio Club and or KF7SN has no control and makes no representations as to the accuracy or any other aspect of information contained in other Web Sites.  BARC operates this website as a free service to all Radio Amateurs and prospective Radio Amateurs.

The Beartooth Amateur Radio Club, KF7SN, K7ZXX or any member will not be held responsible or libel in any way or manner for this information on this web site, which may also include bad or dead links.

(If you find any dead links please report them directly to KF7SN BARC Webmaster / Administrator).

Beartooth Amateur Radio Club website is solely owned, created and managed by Geary KF7SN.

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